Scientific knowledge has been accepted as the main driver of development, allowing for longer, healthier, and more comfortable lives. Still, public support to scientific research is wavering, with large numbers of people being uninterested or even hostile towards science. This is having serious social consequences, from the anti-vaccination community to the recent “post-truth” movement. Such lack of trust and appreciation for science was first justified as lack of knowledge, leading to the “Deficit Model”. As an increase in scientific information did not necessarily lead to a greater appreciation, this model was largely rejected, giving rise to “Public Engagement Models”. These try to offer more nuanced, two-way, communication pipelines between experts and the general public, strongly respecting non-expert knowledge, possibly even leading to an undervaluing of science. Therefore, we still lack an encompassing theory that can explain public understanding of science, allowing for more targeted and informed approaches.
We are using a large dataset from the Science and Technology Eurobarometer surveys, over 25 years in 34 countries, to try to better understand what influences people’s attitudes towards science.